Cervical Cancer Biomarkers

Biomarkers can help a treatment team to determine the best treatment for a patient, see how the patient is responding, and assist in creating a care plan. New tumor markers are being identified with more frequency, so all tumor markers may not yet be reflected on this list.

 The following markers may be helpful for those who are diagnosed with cervical cancer.

Biomarkers of HPV infection and carcinogenesis

E6/E7 mRNA p53, Rb, p16INK4a, telomerase RNA gene (TERC), serum SCC-Ag, OCVA1


Markers of cell cycle and proliferation

Ki-67, cyclin D1, p53, p63


Markers of apoptosis



Expression of cytokeratins–markers of differentiation

CK7, CK8, CK17, CK19


Markers of cell adhesion, invasion and metastasis

E-cadherin, P-cadherin, CD44, ADAM9, MT1-MMP, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, MT1-MMP, MMP-2, MMP-1, MMP-9, MMP-14, proMMP-14 furin, gelatinase, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2


Biomarkers of cancer stem cells

Nanog, nucleostemin (NS), musashi1 (Msi1), SOX2, KLF4, CD133, Cd44, ALDH1, CD49f, ABCG2, BMI1, PIWIL2, LGR5, OCT4, CD117


Markers of angiogenesis

VEGF, podoplanin (PDPN), thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1, antiangiogenesis factor), CD31 (a nonspecific endothelial marker), CD34, CD105 (a tumor-specific endothelial marker)


Vaginal microbiome, inflammation and immune homeostasis

Evaluation of the diversity of cervicovaginal microbiome